Comparing Cattle for Crossbreeding

Across-breed EPDs and the value of shared metrics

Imagine you want to buy a horse. But you’re a tall guy, so you want a tall horse. In your search, you find advertisements for two likely potentials. They both look like great ranch horses, but one is listed as 72 tall while the other is described as 132 tall.

If you chose based on those numbers alone, without knowing the measurement systems being used in each case, you would be short-changed if you chose the second horse because of its seemingly larger height number.

If you knew the measurement system each number was coming from—inches and centimeters, respectively—and knew how to convert those systems to make them comparable, it would be clear that the first horse is taller despite the seemingly lower number (72 in. versus 132 cm, a.k.a. 52 in.). If both horses were measured using the same system—let’s say, hands, making them 18 hands versus 13 hands—to begin with, it would make finding the taller horse even easier.

Expected progeny differences (EPDs) in the cattle world are a lot like our hypothetical tall horses problem. Most breeds’ EPDs are on different bases. An EPD basis is analogous to a measurement system; it’s the system in which their measurement numbers (i.e., EPDs) make sense. If you try to directly compare the weaning weight EPD on an Angus bull to the weaning weight EPD on a Hereford bull, for example, your success at getting a bull that meets your genetic goals will be about as successful as if you had chosen the second “tall” horse.