Month: March 2019

Burke Teichert’s top 5 tips on bull selection

Burke Teichert | Oct 06, 2016

Last month I talked about culling the right cow.You should cull cows to keep your herd cleaned up and managerially efficient. This minimizes the time required for doctoring, calving problems, taking care of the wild ones and the labor requirement for a strung out calving season. It also reduces the number of animals that are hard to market. In the process, you will also have a positive effect on herd fertility, health and adaptation to your management and environment.

Bull selection can result in rapid change. However, change may not always result in progress or improvement. In fact, I will suggest that a lot of our so-called “improvement” in cattle growth rates has been more than offset by reductions in stocking rates, conception rates and herd health.

The result has been more time spent doctoring cattle, lower conception rates and/or higher feed bills, and fewer pounds produced per acre. Because the calves that are produced are bigger, they bring less per pound. Therefore, we now sell fewer pounds per acre at a lower price per pound.

We are now seeing research on this. In only one case have I seen calf weaning weights higher as cow size decreases. Usually calf weights decrease as cow size decreases, but not proportionally.  So, when stocking rates are adjusted to fit cow size, enough more cows can be run that, in spite of lighter calves, more pounds are weaned per acre.

On many ranches, the number one determinant of profit is the ratio of grazed feed to fed feed.  Once you have gotten over doing a lot of feeding, stocking rate becomes the number one determinant of profit; and stocking rate is determined by cow size and milking ability along with grazing and pasture management. Next comes herd fertility. Then, in a group, come marketing, cows per person ratio and herd health problems.

Therefore, let’s take all of that into consideration as we make bull selections. Here are five tips:

  1.  Cull the right cow: Why would I want to buy a bull born to a cow that I would have culled at my ranch? Go through your cull criteria and ask if the mother of “that” bull would still be in your herd. I firmly believe that, if you have reduced feeding to the bare minimum, have selected good, moderate-sized bulls and have culled cows as I described last month, you have some very good cows. Those are the kind of cows that should be mothers of bulls.
  2.  Size and milking ability: If you want cows that can graze most of the year and get pregnant early in the breeding season, and if you want to wean more pounds per acre by running more smaller cows with less milking ability, you will want to select bulls with less mature size and lower milk EPDs.

    I’m sure there is room for some difference of opinion here, but to maximize pounds produced per acre and at the same time keep supplemental feed cost at a minimum, I want cows to be as small as they can be and still produce a feeder calf that will be acceptable at the market place.

    I know the feeder and packer seem to want them bigger and bigger. But you need to stay in business first. There is information indicating that producers are using bulls with higher and higher EPDs for milk and for weaning and yearling weight. But actual weaning weights on the ranches have not changed in recent years. However, cow size has.

    If your attempts to produce bigger and bigger calves are robbing you of conception rate and good herd health, are costing you more in feed cost and supplementation and reducing your stocking rate, you should reconsider your breeding priorities.

  3.  Heterosis: Carcass traits are quite highly heritable. Growth traits are moderately heritable. Milk is less heritable and fertility, health and longevity are considered to be the least heritable.

    But, because carcass traits are highly heritable, they don’t respond much to heterosis while other traits do. The rest of the traits respond, with the more highly heritable having a smaller response and the less heritable having a greater response to heterosis. Optimum heterosis is most likely different for each situation, but I want a significant level of heterosis in every cow.

    Heterosis will significantly enhance fertility and health while slightly increasing milk and growth. You can’t expect selection to do what heterosis does nor vice versa.Parenthetically, I think that some aspects of fertility—first cycle conception as a yearling and calving interval—are more highly heritable than heritability estimates would suggest.

  4. Disposition: As an industry, we have made great progress across many breeds on disposition. I think every bull should be carefully scrutinized for disposition. It is refreshing and encouraging to see herds of cows in breeds with reputations of poor disposition that have wonderful dispositions.

  5.  Growth and carcass: Improving growth rates and carcass traits is desirable as long as the negative consequences don’t overbalance the positives. When you make sure that the bulls you purchase will produce the kinds of cows you want, you then need to move carefully and cautiously to get the desired results without undoing much of the good you have accomplished.

    I think it can be done, but carefully and slowly. Genomics and heterosis, if they can become compatible, could help move growth and carcass forward faster without undoing progress in the other traits. Currently, a number of genomic tests only validate in high percentage Angus cattle. When those tests are valid across a number of breeds and crosses, much progress could be made.

Perhaps the best breeding decision a commercial producer will ever make is the choice of a seedstock provider. Find someone whose breeding objectives mirror your own, who operates in an environment similar to yours, who can help you benefit from heterosis and can understand your objectives and help you select the right bull.

P.S.—I continue to maintain that about 40% of the cows in America should be bred to terminal-cross bulls. Producers choosing that option should buy cows (not heifers) from producers who cull cows and select bulls as I have described. They should then select bulls with high growth and carcass EPDs for use on those cows—not the moderate EPDs that I have suggested in this article for those producing replacements.

 

Burke Teichert, a consultant on strategic planning for ranches, retired in 2010 as vice president and general manager of AgReserves, Inc. He resides in Orem, Utah. Contact him at burketei@comcast.net.

Cow’s Mothering Rating

Cow’s Mothering Rating

Posted July 28th, 2018 — Filed in Stockmanship

I have been following a thread on another e-mail list comparing the mothering rating of the cow that tries to attack anyone who gets close to their new-born calf as opposed to the cow that is OK with this. The consensus seems to be that the mellow cow is not as good mother as the cow that will try to eat you. I disagree with this.

Bud and I found that when you work livestock properly – that is, by using pressure/release methods instead of force and fear, the cows learn to respect but not fear you.  Since they don’t feel you are a threat to them, they also don’t think you are a threat to their calf so they don’t “get on the fight” when you need to handle their new baby.

When we lived in Canada we were involved with a Beef Booster cow herd.  In case you aren’t familiar, this is a composite breed.  Some of the herds were rated “Maternal.” Their main function was to produce heifers to go into the cow herd, another raised “Terminal bulls” to use on the herds that would market all of their calves, etc.  The man we worked for had about 100 head of cows that were designed to raise “Terminal bulls.”  He wanted to change over to a “Maternal” herd so he swapped his herd with a neighbor.  When these cows were delivered the neighbor also delivered a list of ear-tag numbers of cows that would kill you if you tried to handle their baby calf.   The only way they could weigh and tag the calf was with a bucket loader on a tractor.  A man in the bucket would get the calf, then the tractor operator would try to raise the bucket before the cow could climb in, too.  We received these cows in October.  We handled them quite a lot.  If the feedlot shipped a pen of cattle and there was still feed in the bunks, we’d put these cows in the pen for a while to let them clean the bunk.  Through the winter we tried to move their straw bed every few days to make it easier when they farmed the ground in the spring.  This usually meant we had to drive the cows to the new bed a couple of times to discourage them from going back to the old one, etc.  When spring came the owner was able to weigh and tag every calf with no aggression from any of the cows.

The first year we worked on the elk ranch In Texas, we didn’t see an elk calf until it was a couple of weeks old.  The following year, the cow elk would bring their newborn calves with them when we drove through the pasture, scattering hay.  We even had one calf born in the corral.

Meeting Your Goals

Selecting Bulls to Meet Your Goals –

By Kit Pharo

I came across an internet article late last week entitled, “Selecting Bulls to Meet Your Goals,” or something like that.   It wasn’t worth the time it took to open the link – but it did get me to thinking.   I suspect most cow-calf producers have no goals.   They are just doing what everyone else is doing and/or what they have always done.   If you don’t have goals, you have no direction in your life or business.

Do you have business goals?   I’m not talking about ideas or dreams you think about every now and then.   I’m talking about real goals.   If you have real goals, you are probably one in a thousand.   If you have real goals, you have a HUGEcompetitive advantage over everyone else in your business.   If you have real goals, you are creating your own future.   If you have real goals, you are also creating a future for the next generation.

A real goal must be Specific, Measurable, Attainable and Time-Sensitive.

  1. Specific: Goals are no place to waffle.   This is no place to be vague.   Vague goals produce vague results.
  2. Measurable: Always set goals that are measurable.   If they are not measurable, you will never know for sure when they have been achieved.   For example, don’t set a goal to “make more money.”
  3. Attainable: Goals must be realistic and attainable.   Most people don’t set goals – so when they do, they tend to set goals that are too big to be easily attained.   This creates discouraging results.
  4. Time-Sensitive: Every goal should have a timeframe attached to it.   A goal must have a deadline – a time in which you want to accomplish it.

I have achieved the best results when I break my big goals down into several (or many) smaller goals that can be easily attained in a relatively short period of time.   I liken my really big goals to an elephant that must be eaten.   There is no way I can eat an elephant in one sitting.   However, I will eventually eat the entire elephant – one bite at a time.

If you do not have any business goals, I encourage you to set some.   Start out by just setting one simple goal that should be easy to attain.   Do it today!   Someday is not a day of the week.   I cannot think of anything that will even come close to giving you a greater return on the time invested.   You will literally amaze yourself!

Let’s go back to the subject of bull selection…

Since the bulls you purchase are responsible for at least 90% of your herd improvement (or deterioration), it makes sense that bull selection can play an extremely important part in helping you meet your goals.   Are you purchasing bulls that will help you achieve your business goals?   Are you purchasing bulls that will increase your future success and happiness?   Are you purchasing bulls with the next generation in mind?

Quote Worth Re-Quoting –

“Setting goals is the first step in turning the invisible into the visible.”   ~ Tony Robbins

Extension / Publications / Bull Buyer’s Guide

Never underestimate the power of your bull. Selecting and purchasing a bull for your beef herd could be considered one of the most important decisions you make in your operation. Don’t make a quick, unprepared decision on purchasing a bull. Never consider purchasing a bull without a proven record and a sound genetic background. Using a bull with poor performance and a weak genetic base could delay improvements in your herd for several years. The small expense you have in purchasing a bull is the difference between the purchase price of the new bull and the salvage value of the old bull (see Example 1). This investment will add efficiency and profitability to your herd for years to come.

Example 1. Cost of a bull purchase

 

$3000 Purchase Price of New Bull
-2090 Salvage Value of Old Bull (1900 lbs. X 1.10/lb.)
$ 910 Net Cost of New Bull

If the new bull sires 90 calves over the next 3-5 years, $910 ÷ 90 = $10.11 cost/ calf. If the bull sires 90 calves that are 10 pounds heavier at weaning and they sell for $1.09/lb. (3-year average for 500-pound calves ? GA Auction Markets, 2009-2011) at weaning, you will have paid for the bull.

The cost of purchasing a bull may seem high at a glance; however, that expense becomes relatively small when it is spread across your bull?s calf crop for a three- to five-year period. Example 1 shows how you can turn an expense into a savings. Bull procurement decisions can greatly impact your future calf crops and herd genetics for many years. When you consider that the bull contributes one-half of the genetic makeup of your calf crop and may sire 25 to 40 or more calves per year, it is easy to see that he is the most important individual in the herd. Keep in mind that a bull that will improve a herd must have genetic superiority over both the cows in the herd and over pervious bulls.

The best way to remain efficient in today’s beef industry is continue to produce more pounds of product per cow exposed. That task can become hard to achieve without the help of a superior bull. Fortunately, weight at various ages is heritable. Birth weight and weaning weight are estimated to be about 30 percent heritable, while yearling weight is about 45 percent heritable. This means that a certain degree of birth weight, weaning weight and yearling weight is inherited from the parents and that progress can be made by selecting for these traits.

Selection Tools

Birth, weaning and yearling weights are normally used to evaluate breeding animals. Actual or adjusted weights may help in making comparisons between bulls in the same contemporary group (a group of animals from the same herd, year and season that is raised together under the same conditions). Since environmental factors like feed and weather affect weights, actual or adjusted weight can be misleading if bulls come from different contemporary groups. Within a herd, weight ratios help account for some of the environmental differences between contemporary groups. But, ratios can also be misleading if bulls come from different herds. Expected Progeny Differences (EPDs), on the other hand, are calculated across herds. A bull’s EPD for a trait is a more accurate estimate of his genetic worth than his weight, adjusted weight or ratio. EPDs not only account for contemporary group and herd differences, they also include information on a bull?s relatives as well as his individual performance. Breed associations report EPDs on weights and many other traits.

Most major breed associations have National Cattle Evaluation programs. Breeders who are involved in their breed’s performance program should have birth, weaning and yearling weight EPDs available on yearling bulls. In all of these breeds, weight EPDs are expressed in pounds of calf. For example, if bull A has a weaning weight EPD of +45 and bull B has a weaning weight EPD of +35, the calves produced by bull A are expected to weigh, on the average, 10 pounds more at weaning than those of bull B, assuming the bulls are bred to comparable cows.

Advances in National Cattle Evaluation have made estimating a bull’s genetic worth more accurate than ever before. EPDs allow valid comparisons of all bulls of the same breed, but they do not allow comparison of bulls from different breeds. Since breeds have different average performance, base years and evaluation procedures, direct comparison of EPDs from different breeds can be extremely misleading. It should also be noted that a bull with an EPD of zero is rarely average. In most breeds, zero is the average of some base group of animals. Since breeds change over time, in some breeds it is possible to find bulls with positive weaning and yearling weight EPDs that are several pounds below the average of all yearling bulls in that breed. Current breed averages and information on how to use EPDs are included in breed association sire summaries, which are available on most major breed association websites.

Accuracy Values (ACC) are usually published with EPDs. The accuracy values indicate the reliability of the EPD, or how likely the EPD is to change as more information becomes available. Accuracies are usually expressed as correlations ranging from zero to one. The closer the accuracy is to one, the more reliable the EPD is. Yearling bulls normally have low accuracy values. Older AI sires can have very high accuracies.

Recommended Performance Standards

Weaning Weight ? Yearling Weight

Commercial producers are paid for pounds of calf. Two very important traits to consider are weaning and yearling weights. However, single trait selection may result in problems with other traits. A good example is selecting for yearling weight alone, which results in increased birth weight because the two traits are genetically correlated. Select bulls that have an excellent combination of performance EPDs that are at or near the bulls’ breed average. Desired genetic improvement involves a combination of several traits, including weaning and yearling weights.

Milk Production

Maternal ability within a breed can best be evaluated with milk EPDs; however, milk is not measured directly in beef cattle performance programs. It is measured in terms of how it affects weaning weight. Milk EPD on a bull is an estimate of pounds of calf at weaning produced by the bull’s daughter due to her milking ability. For example, if bull A has a milk EPD of +5 and bull B has a milk EPD of +2, all other things being equal, bull A’s daughters should produce calves that wean 3 pounds heavier than those from daughters of bull B due to extra milk production. There is some variation in the terminology used by different breed associations in reporting maternal EPDs. An explanation of maternal EPDs is included in a breed’s sire summary.

Producing extra milk requires that a cow consumes extra protein and energy. High milk production can affect a cow’s ability to breed back after calving. For this reason, selecting for maximum milk production is not a good idea in most commercial herds.

Conformation

The cattle industry produces cattle of all breeds, sizes, ages and quality. There is a market for all of them. However, if you sell feeder calves or feed out your own cattle, consider the following points:

  • Good quality cattle eat no more feed than low quality cattle and are just as efficient at converting feed to beef.
  • Bulls should generally have a muscling score of one and be medium plus to large minus framed, according to the USDA feeder calf standards (Table 1). Such calves will bring a higher price than lower grade calves.
  • Low quality cattle with poor conformation usually are more subject to price declines in years of over production than are high quality cattle. Small framed cattle mature early and are slow, inefficient gainers if fed past maturity.

Frame Score

Hip height in inches is used to give an indication of frame size. Most bull test stations and a large percentage of purebred breeders will have a yearling hip height for each animal. Table 1 gives the ranges of hip height as they relate to mature frame size. Remember, taller cattle do not necessarily grow faster or more efficiently, but they do have a later maturity pattern. Small-framed cattle are discounted in Georgia markets. A bull needs to have enough frame to produce calves that are at least USDA Medium.

Table 1. Hip height relative to mature frame size

 

USDA Frame
Small Medium Large
Frame score 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
7-month hip height (in) 36 38 40 42 44 46 48
12-month hip height (in) 41 43 45 47 49 51 53
Potential slaughter weight 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1350+

Birth Weight

First calf heifers have the most calving problems, so buying a bull with a low birth weight EPD is extremely important when the bull is to be used on heifers. Birth weight is the single most important trait that influences calving difficulty. While many cattlemen look at actual birth weights on bulls, birth weight EPDs are the most accurate measure of a bull?s potential calving ease.

Many breeds report Calving Ease EPDs that are calculated using birth weight and calving scores. These can also be helpful in selecting bulls. Refer to the breed association?s sire summary for a description of how these are reported for a particular breed.

Scrotal Circumference

Research indicates that yearling bulls with large testicles sire daughters that show estrus at an earlier age than bulls with smaller testicles. Be sure the bull you select has a scrotal circumference that is at least 30 cm at 1 year of age.

Physical and Semen Evaluation

If the bull you are considering buying is 12 months or older ask for a physical and semen examination. This can be done by the local veterinarian and will increase your confidence that the bull will be able to settle cows.

Other Traits

Breed associations report EPDs for many other traits and this large volume of information can be overwhelming to the bull buyer, so focus on the basics listed above. You do not have to understand every aspect to be able to select a good commercial bull. When you become comfortable with the basics, consult the breed association website for updates on the most recent developments.

How Much “Bull-Power” Do I Need?

Several factors can help determine the number of cows that can be bred to one bull.

Age

The number of cows per bull will vary with the bull’s age, condition and libido. Use an adequate number of bulls with good libidos. Bulls should be in good body condition, but not fat, at the beginning of the breeding season. Young, growing bulls may require extra feed during the breeding season to meet their protein and energy needs. A yearling bull should not be expected to breed more than 20 to 25 cows, while a mature bull with large testicles, good semen and good libido can breed 25 to 40 or more cows.

Condition

You cannot expect fat or thin bulls to perform up to the standards of properly conditioned bulls. Poor nutrition can influence semen quality. Fat bulls lack the stamina to breed enough cows.

Length of Breeding Season

Length of the calving season and number of calves born during each 21 day period of the calving season does have some influence on the number of cows that can be bred to one bull. Mature bulls can breed up to 40 cows during a 60- to 90-day breeding period and sire a high percentage of these calves in the first 40 days of the calving season. If cows are run in large groups, two bulls that are the same age and breed could run with 80 cows.

Breeding Systems

An artificial insemination (AI) program will not require as many bulls, but the quality of the bulls turned out after the AI period needs to be very high to ensure against poorer quality calves than the AI sired calves. Have a short AI program, no longer than 40 days, and then turn out the cleanup bulls.

Other Factors to Consider when Buying a Bull

  • The bull you buy should be functionally sound — a good breeder with a long life ahead — and he should be structurally correct, with sound feet and legs and strong pasterns.
  • The bull should not have swollen joints and should be able to move freely and easily.
  • The bull should not be extremely nervous. A bull with a mean disposition is difficult to handle and he may pass on his nervousness to his offspring.

Be sure you do not buy disease when you buy a bull. Request a copy of the bull’s health record. Place new bulls in an isolation paddock where you can observe them for 30 days before putting them with the herd.

Where to Buy a Bull

Many top cattlemen think where to buy a bull is the most important choice involved in their purchase. You need to know that records of birth dates, rate of gain, weaning weights and health conditions of a bull are just as the seller says. You need to know that the breeder will live up to his responsibilities. It has been said that records and pedigrees are as good or as poor as the integrity of the breeder. Here are some recommendations:

  • Buy from a breeder whose integrity is above reproach.
  • Buy from someone who has complete performance records on his cattle, and knows what those records mean.
  • Buy from a place where you know the type of management under which the bulls were produced.
  • Buy bulls from central test stations where all records are available.
  • Buy bulls from performance oriented producer sales.
  • Buy bulls from breed association sponsored sales.

Using Artificial Insemination

Artificial insemination increases your chances of promoting the important traits. Since many of the bulls in the AI studs have a great number of progeny with performance records, you can predict more accurately what their calves’ performances will be in your herd. AI services also screen their bulls closely for any undesirable traits.

Whether you breed your cows by AI or not is a decision you must make based on your own labor and management situation. However, you can consider AI as one method of “buying a bull.”

Selecting a Bull for Crossbreeding

It is just as important to select bulls for a crossbreeding program based on traits that are heritable as it is for other breeding systems. You can improve your herd by careful selection and produce hybrid vigor at the same time.

Determining a Bull’s Worth

It is very difficult to predict the dollar value of a particular bull; however, the following factors can affect a bull’s value:

  • The number of calves the bull may sire.
  • The performance level of the herd on which the bull is to be used. Almost any good bull will improve the performance of a poor herd, while only very superior bulls can help a high performing herd.
  • The type of breeding system you select. Purebred breeders can usually justify a higher bull investment than can commercial producers.

Summary

Selecting and buying a herd bull is the quickest way to make genetic improvement in your herd. The selection process must include looking for those traits that are economically important and highly heritable. Your own herd records are necessary if you are to select a bull that will improve your genetic base. Demand and buy bulls with total performance that will improve your herd.


Status and Revision History
Published on Jul 01, 1994
In Review on Feb 03, 2009
In Review for Major Revisions on Feb 03, 2009
Unpublished/Removed on Jul 03, 2012
Published with Minor Revisions on Jul 25, 2012
Published with Full Review on Mar 31, 2017